Nursing Foundations I


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We are providing the Nursing Foundations-I book for B.Sc Nursing 1st semester as per INC by Thakur Publication. Nursing foundation 1st year textbook covered all syllabus.

The "Nursing Foundations-I" book by Thakur Publication is specifically designed for students pursuing B.Sc Nursing in their first semester, as per the guidelines set by the Indian Nursing Council (INC). This comprehensive textbook serves as a foundational resource, covering essential concepts and principles in nursing practice.


With its well-structured content and updated information, this book serves as a reliable companion for nursing students, helping them build a strong knowledge base in their academic journey.

ISBN: 978-93-5480-214-0/Author- Prof.(Dr.) Manjubala Dash,  Prof.(Dr.) Sandeep Kumar Choubisa


                                        NURSING FOUNDATION - I








Introduction to Health and Illness

·     Concept of Health – Definitions (WHO), Dimensions

·     Maslow‘s hierarchy of needs

·     Health – Illness continuum

·     Factors influencing health

·     Causes and risk factors for developing illnesses

·     Illness – Types, illness behavior

·     Impact of illness on patient and family






Health Care Delivery Systems

Introduction of Basic Concepts & Meanings

·     Levels of Illness Prevention – Primary (Health Promotion), Secondary and Tertiary

·     Levels of Care – Primary, Secondary and Tertiary

·     Types of health care agencies/ services – Hospitals, clinics, Hospice, rehabilitation centres, extended care facilities

·     Hospitals – Types, Organization and Functions

·     Health care teams in hospitals – members and their role



History of Nursing and Nursing as a Profession

·     History of Nursing, History of Nursing in India

·     Contributions of Florence Nightingale

·     Nursing – Definition – Nurse, Nursing, Concepts, philosophy, objectives, Characteristics, nature and Scope of Nursing/ Nursing practice, Functions of

·     nurse, Qualities of a nurse, Categories of nursing personnel

·     Nursing as a profession – definition and characteristics/criteria of profession

·     Values – Introduction – meaning and importance

·     Code of ethics and professional conduct for nurses – Introduction


Communication and Nurse Patient Relationship

·     Communication – Levels, Elements and Process, Types, Modes, Factors influencing communication

·     Methods of effective communication/therapeutic communication techniques

·     Barriers to effective communication/nontherapeutic communication techniques

·     Professional communication

·     Helping Relationships (Nurse Patient Relationship) – Purposes and Phases

·     Communicating effectively with patient, families and team members

·     Maintaining effective human relations and communication with vulnerable groups (children, women, physically and mentally challenged and elderly)


Documentation and Reporting

·     Documentation – Purposes of Reports and Records

·     Confidentiality

·     Types of Client records/Common Recordkeeping forms

·     Methods/Systems of documentation/Recording

·     Guidelines for documentation

·     Do‘s and Don‘ts of documentation/Legal guidelines for Documentation/Recording

·     Reporting – Change of shift reports, Transfer reports, Incident reports


Vital Signs

·     Guidelines for taking vital signs

·     Body temperature

o  Definition, Physiology, Regulation, Factors affecting body temperature

o  Assessment of body temperature – sites, equipment and technique

o  Temperature alterations- Hyperthermia, Heat Cramps, Heat Exhaustion, Heatstroke, Hypothermia

o  Fever/Pyrexia – Definition, Causes, Stages, Types

·     Nursing Management

o  Hot and Cold applications

·     Pulse:

o  Definition, Physiology and Regulation, Characteristics, Factors affecting pulse

o  Assessment of pulse – sites, equipment and technique

o  Alterations in pulse

·     Respiration:

o  Definition, Physiology and Regulation, Mechanics of breathing, Characteristics, Factors affecting respiration

o  Assessment of respirations – technique

o  Arterial Oxygen saturation

o  Alterations in respiration

·     Blood pressure:

o  Definition, Physiology and Regulation, Characteristics, Factors affecting BP

o  Assessment of BP – sites, equipment and technique, Common Errors in BP Assessment

o  Alterations in Blood Pressure

·     Documenting Vital Signs


Equipment and Linen

·     Types – Disposables and reusable

o  Linen, rubber goods, glassware, metal, plastics, furniture

·     Introduction – Indent, maintenance, Inventory


Introduction to Infection Control in Clinical setting Infection

·     Nature of infection

·     Chain of infection

·     Types of infection

·     Stages of infection

·     Factors increasing susceptibility to infection

·     Body defenses against infection – Inflammatory response & Immune response

·     Health care associated infection (Nosocomial infection)


Introductory concept of Asepsis – Medical & Surgical asepsis


·     Hand Hygiene

·     (Hand washing and use of hand Rub)

·     Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

·     Standard precautions

Biomedical Waste management

·     Types of hospital waste, waste segregation and hazards – Introduction


Comfort, Rest & Sleep and Pain

·     Comfort

o  Factors Influencing Comfort

o  Types of beds including latest beds, purposes & bed making

o  Therapeutic positions

o  Comfort devices

·     Sleep and Rest

o  Physiology of sleep

o  Factors affecting sleep

o  Promoting Rest and sleep

o  Sleep Disorders

·     Pain (Discomfort)

o  Physiology

o  Common cause of pain

o  Types

o  Assessment – pain scales and narcotic scales

o  Pharmacological and Non-pharmacological pain relieving measures – Use of narcotics, TENS devices, PCA

o  Invasive techniques of pain management

o  Any other newer measures

o  CAM (Complementary & Alternative healing Modalities)


Promoting Safety in Health Care Environment

·     Physical environment – Temperature, Humidity, Noise, Ventilation, Light, Odor, Pest control

·     Reduction of Physical hazards – fire, accidents

·     Fall Risk Assessment

·     Role of nurse in providing safe and clean environment

·     Safety devices –

o  Restraints – Types, Purposes, Indications, Legal Implications and Consent, Application of Restraints- Skill and Practice guidelines

o  Other Safety Devices – Side rails, Grab bars, Ambu alarms, non-skid slippers etc.


Hospital Admission and Discharge

·     Admission to the hospital Unit and preparation of unit

o  Admission bed

o  Admission procedure

o  Medico-legal issues

o  Roles and Responsibilities of the nurse

·     Discharge from the hospital

o  Types – Planned discharge, LAMA and Abscond, Referrals and transfers

o  Discharge Planning

o  Discharge procedure

o  Medico-legal issues

o  Roles and Responsibilities of the nurse

o  Care of the unit after discharge


Mobility and Immobility

·     Elements of Normal Movement, Alignment & Posture, Joint Mobility, Balance, Coordinated Movement

·     Principles of body mechanics

·     Factors affecting Body Alignment and activity

·     Exercise – Types and benefits

·     Effects of Immobility

·     Maintenance of normal Body Alignment and Activity

·     Alteration in Body Alignment and mobility

·     Nursing interventions for impaired Body Alignment and Mobility – assessment, types, devices used, method

o  Range of motion exercise

o  Muscle strengthening exercises

o  Maintaining body alignment – position

o  Moving

o  Lifting

o  Transferring

o  Walking


·     Assisting clients with ambulation

·     Care of patients with Immobility using Nursing process approach

·     Care of patients with casts and splints


Patient Education

·     Patient Teaching – Importance, Purposes, Process

·     Integrating nursing process in patient teaching


First Aid*

·     Definition, Basic Principles, Scope & Rules

·     First Aid Management

o  Wounds, Hemorrhage & Shock

o  Musculoskeletal Injuries – Fractures, Dislocation, Muscle injuries


INC2021/B.SC Nursing/1/05
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