Pharmaceutics- I

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ISBN- 978-93-88280-08-2

AUTHORS- Dr. Akhil Sharma, Mr. Hemant Bhardwaj


1.1 PHARMACEUTICS-I                                                                    Theory (75 Hours)

Introduction of Different Dosage Forms: Their classification with examples – their relative applications. Familiarisation with new drug delivery systems. Introduction to Pharmacopoeias with special reference to the Indian Pharmacopoeia.

Metrology: System of weights and measures. Calculations including conversion from one to another system. Percentage calculations and adjustment of products. Use of allegation method in calculations. Isotonic solutions.

Packaging of Pharmaceuticals: Desirable features of a container and types of containers. Study of glass and plastics as materials for containers and rubber as a material for closure-their merits and demerits. Introduction to aerosol packaging.

Size reduction, objectives, and factors affecting size reduction, methods of size reduction- study of Hammer mill, Ball mill, Fluid energy mill and Disintegrator.

Size Separation: Size separation by sifting. Official standards for powders. Sedimentation methods of size separation. Construction and working of Cyclone separator.

Mixing and Homogenisation: Liquid mixing and powder mixing, Mixing of semisolids. Study of Silverson Mixer-Homogeniser, planetary mixer; Agitated powder mixer; Triple Roller Mill; Propeller Mixer, Colloid Mill and Hand Homogeniser. Double cone mixer.

Clarification and Filtration: Theory of filtration, Filter media; Filter aids and selection of filters. Study of the following filtration equipments – Filter Press, Sintered Filters, Filter Candles, Metafilter.


Extraction and Galenicals:

1)       Study of percolation and maceration and their modification, continuous hot extraction – Application in the preparation of tinctures and extracts.

2)       Introduction to Ayurvedic dosage forms.


Heat process-Evaporation-Definition-Factors affecting evaporation-study of evaporating still and evaporating pan.


Distillation: Simple distillation and Fractional distillation, Steam distillation and Vacuum distillation. Study of vacuum still, preparation of purified water I.P. and water for Injection IP. Construction and working of the still used for the same.


Introduction to Drying Process: Study of Tray Dryers; Fluidised Bed Dryer, Vacuum Dryer and Freeze Dryer.

Sterilisation: Concept of sterilisation and its differences from disinfection-Thermal resistance of microorganisms. Detailed study of the following sterilisation process.

Sterilisation with moist heat, Dry heat sterilisation, Sterilisation by radiation, Sterilisation by filtration and Gaseous sterilisation.

Aseptic Techniques: Applications of sterilisation process in hospitals particularly with reference to surgical dressings and intravenous fluids. Precautions for safe and effective handling of sterilisation equipment.

Processing of Tablets: Definition; different type of compressed tables and their properties. Processes involved in the production of tablets; Tablets excipients; Defects in tablets; Evaluation of Tablets; Physical standards including Disintegration and Dissolution. Tablet coating-sugar coating; films coating, enteric coating and micro-encapsulation (Tablet coating may be de.. in an elementary manner).


Processing of Capsules: Hard and soft gelatin capsules; different sizes of capsules; filling of capsules; handling and storage of capsules. Special applications of capsules.

Study of immunological products like sera, vaccines, toxoids and their preparations.

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