1.2 PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-I Theory (75 Hours)
General discussion on the following inorganic compounds including important physical and chemical properties, medicinal and pharmaceutical uses, storage conditions and chemical incompatibility.
Acids, Bases and Buffers:
Boric acid, Hydrochloric acid, Strong Ammonium hydroxide, Sodium hydroxide and official buffers.
Hypophosphorous acid, Sulphur dioxide, Sodium bisulphite, Sodium meta bisulphite, Sodium thiosulphate, Nitrogen and Sodium nitrite.
Acidifying agents – Dilute Hydrochloric acid.
Antacids – Sodium bicarbonate, Aluminium hydroxide gel, Aluminium phosphate, Calcium carbonate, Magnesium carbonate, Magnesium trisilicate, Magnesium oxide, Combinations of antacid preparations. Protective and Adsorbents- Bismuth sub carbonate and Kaolin.
Saline cathartics –
Sodium potassium tartrate and Magnesium sulphate.
Protective – Talc, Zinc Oxide, Calamine, Zinc stearate, Titanium dioxide, silicone polymers.
Antimicrobials and Astringents:
Hydrogen peroxide*, Potassium permanganate, Chlorinated lime, Iodine, Solutions of Iodine, Povidone-iodine, Boric acid, Borax, Silver nitrate, Mild silver protein, Mercury yellow, Mercuric oxide, Ammoniated mercury.
Sulphur and its compounds –
Sublimed sulphur, Precipitated sulphur, Selenium sulphide.
Astringents – Alum and Zinc Sulphate.
Sodium fluoride, Stannous fluoride, Calcium carbonate, Sodium meta phosphate, Di-calcium phosphate, Strontium chloride, Zinc chloride.
Inhalants – Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Nitrous oxide.
Respiratory Stimulants: Ammonium carbonate.
Expectorants and Emetics: Ammonium chloride*, Potassium iodide, Antimony potassium tartrate.
Antidotes: Sodium nitrite.
Major Intra and Extra Cellular Electrolytes
Electrolytes used for replacement therapy – Sodium chloride and its preparations, Potassium chloride and its preparations. Physiological acid-base balance and electrolytes used – Sodium acetate, Potassium acetate, Sodium bicarbonate Inj., Sodium citrate, Potassium citrate, Sodium lactate injection, Ammonium chloride and its injection.
Combination of oral electrolyte powders and solutions.
Inorganic official compounds of Iron, Iodine and Calcium, Ferrous Sulphate and Calcium Gluconate.
Radio Pharmaceuticals and Contrast Media: Radio activity-Alpha; Beta and Gamma Radiations, Biological effects of radiations, Measurement of radio activity, G.M. Counter, Radio isotopes – their uses, Storage and precautions with special reference to the official preparations. Radio opaque contrast media-Barium sulphate.
Quality Control of Drugs and Pharmaceuticals: Importance of quality control, significant errors, methods used for quality control, sources of impurities in Pharmaceuticals. Limit tests for Arsenic, Chloride, Sulphate, Iron and Heavy metals.
Identification tests for cations and anions as per Indian Pharmacopoeia.